Some time in the 4000s or early 1500s BC, infusion of new species of amoebas (insects, i.e. crickets, alike) into the river Nile in Egypt by a migrating tribe of mammals known as the Nile stalkers, marked the interchange of the old semi-nomadic African tribes with the wandering tribes of the desert. The species of monstrous reptiles making their way up the Nile being more colossal in both size and strength than the Ethiopian wolf, Nile sickle and maker, are now endemic to the Nile River in East Africa.

The wild world of North Africa

The specimen of struthiomimus, the largest known living terrestrial mammal, ranges from the coastal region of Morocco up to Lake souk in the North. Often mistaken for the jaguar among the large reptiles, it is distinguishable by the stock of hair at the nape of its neck, which is especially long and Figures 3 and 4.

The fossilized remains of the rodent emanate from the Caspian Sea and enrich the Lower Egypt with the fossils of a vast range of mammal fossils. Among the rodent fossils discovered in Egypt are the ancestors of the elephant, saber-toothed cat, leopard, puma, and rare gray fox. The science museum in Cairo displays a collection of 506 feet of the tail of the biggest known species of Nile crocodile.

Long before the European invasion of Africa, the Sharifs of Egypt, using horsemen on horses, conquered the vast stretches of desert and mountainous land and brought forth to the Nile Valley the genus of mammals bringing many new species. The desert lions, giant black panthers were the earliest examples of a new order of mammals discovering themselves in the Sahara region. Just a mile off the coast of Alexandria, today’s famous Djingr of the deep and the green forests evolved. Initially, friendly dolphins, the Djingr lizard, with an ancestorship of the dolphin family, was likewise friendly to man.

More than 2,000 dry and moist forests remain today in Egypt with some of the country’s finest nature reserves. Forming a belt of land and running through the Aegean Sea, the NileRiver drainage basin spreads through a zone of Mediterranean sea, the Pet Luxor through an area of marine geology and the Cairo Passage, which lies in the youngest geological strato-estuary in the world.

Mountains in the Red Sea region always had the reputation of suitable places for rest and fishing. Just inland from the Nile delta lies the country’s greatest natural treasure, the magical Blue Nile, which shares the border with Upper Egypt and Sudan.

Ancient history

In the 2nd half of the 6th century AD, the Romans founded the governorate of Apex around 300BC, and it was only in later years that the settlement grew to be what it is today. The old town walls are still visible there, and it’s possible to wander among them and discover some rare Arabic manuscripts under street or tree gatherings. Also here are the famous Cheops’ pyramid and the Citadel.

Some distance from the Nile Delta lies the equally famous Ancient City of Sakkara and the legendary Queen of the North, Kiya who together with her husband Cheops, built an impressive city around an open summit called later to be known as the Citadel.

In the 5th century AD, Greek colonists came to the Nile Delta and settled by the spring waters, where they were known also as Mereians. They continued to flourish until the Nile turned to the dark blue color in the 6th century AD.

In the Middle Kingdom, the Nile turned to a lesser degree and according to the biblical canon, the flood took place at this time. It is said floods also happened at this time in the Nile Delta area. On the opposite side of the Citadel, still located above the flood level, is the Temple of the Moon, at a height of about 145 feet.

After the biblical flood, the site was abandoned and some 12 centuries later, Roman traders discovered it and built a fort there. The Temple of Ma’ans was constructed around the 4th century AD by the Roman Emperor Justinian, who relocated it after a plague hit the region. A large theme of buildings was built during the 13th and 14th Centuries by the Mamluks and Ryans.

My other posts on travel theme: